Dr. Ruggiero answered:
An independent laboratory (R.E.D. Labs, Belgium) demonstrated that Bravo products have 100 fold more GcMAF activity against nagalase than purified GcMAF. These results have been published in a peer-reviewed scientific article where the effects of Bravo on nagalase and on C-Reactive Protein – a marker of systemic inflammation – are described. The article can be downloaded at
Experimental data obtained in vitro and presented in Figs. 5 and 6 of the article demonstrate the GcMAF activity that is present in Bravo. Since it is well assessed that nagalase specifically binds GcMAF, formation of complexes between nagalase and Bravo is direct demonstration of the presence of active GcMAF in PMF as we described since 2011. Figs. 5 and 6 of the article show the kinetics of in vitro interaction between human nagalase and Bravo with resulting formation of nagalase/Bravo complexes. Bravo at 1:100 dilution had an initial value (at time 0) higher than that observed with PBS alone, thus demonstrating the presence of immediate, intrinsic GcMAF activity. At every time point, Bravo showed significantly higher activity in comparison with purified GcMAF and, at 120 h, the GcMAF activity of Bravo was still well above baseline, whereas purified GcMAF did not show any residual activity (Fig. 7 of the article). Therefore, it may be deduced that the GcMAF activity in Bravo is more than 100 fold higher than that of purified GcMAF and more sustained in time. The 100 fold higher activity of Bravo in comparison with purified GcMAF can be explained taking into consideration two elements.
1. Naturally formed GcMAF in Bravo is associated with vitamin D3, fatty acids and glycosaminoglycans – such as chondroitin sulfate – that are normal constituents of milk and colostrum. Since 2013, we proposed a molecular model describing how non-covalent association of these constituents in a multi-molecular complex significantly enhanced the biological activity of GcMAF. This model was independently confirmed by a recent study demonstrating that association with vitamin D3 significantly increased the immune stimulating activity of GcMAF (Greilberger and Herwig, 2020).
2. Phages in Bravo synthesize proteins with activities superimposable to that of GcMAF that complement the effects of the naturally formed GcMAF that is present in Bravo. For example, the protein RAD52 that is the human homolog of the protein Sak encoded by Lactococcus phage ul36, shows significant similarity with the active site of GcMAF. When the sequences of human RAD52 (P43351) and GcMAF (P02774) were obtained and aligned using the Align tool of Uniprot, alignment showed a striking similarity between the active site of GcMAF that is the sequence TPTELAK, and the sequence DPAQTSD of RAD52. Since it is well known that phages stimulate the immune system, and it is also known that such a stimulation is associated with macrophage activation, see our article at
it is may be hypothesized that GcMAF-like proteins encoded by phages contribute to the overall GcMAF activity of Bravo.
As far as biofilms are concerned, GcMAF in Bravo is not affected by biofilms since the probiotic microbes that are part of Bravo have been selected so to break biofilms as demonstrated by the following scientific article
In other words, at variance with regular GcMAF, whose action can be blocked by biofilms, the GcMAF in Bravo, not only is 100 fold more potent, but it is also unaffected by biofilms since the enzymes released by the probiotics of Bravo break the biofilms.
The composition in microbes, phages and plasmids in Bravo has been described in the following scientific articles
Finally, the anti-viral activity of Bravo has been clinically demonstrated; the evidence is in the insert of Fig. 4 of this article
where the viral load goes down by 98% in a few weeks.